The Internet’s nigh-omnipresence is one of its most astounding and key features. It makes the World Wide Web the fastest & most expansive medium of communication & information exchange and, consequentially, an exceptionally convenient tool for businesses & individuals alike. And, therefore, it’s no wonder that there are 5.3 billion active Internet users globally as of January 2023, with the number steadily rising at a rate of 3.5 per cent annually.
Accommodating such a humongous number of users is anything but simple. The idea of managing a global network with users from every corner, trying to access through varied devices & demanding faster access speeds & persistent, flexible network accessibility is unimaginably overwhelming. Powerful, agile, & resilient technologies & systems and global coordination amongst regulatory authorities are the only surefire way to keep everything up & running.
Internet Protocol or IP addressing is a central technology that allows an Internet user to use the WWW in all its glory. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority is a global body that coordinates IP address spaces, amongst other things. The IANA assigns chunks or spaces of IP addresses to different tiers of Internet Service Providers worldwide.
So, what is Dynamic Host Client Protocol, and where does it come into the picture regarding addressing? Let’s find out.
IP Addressing & DHCP
If we think of the Internet as a global highway of information, then every node (all connected devices such as computers, servers, smartphones, tablets, point-of-sale systems, etc.) can be considered to be establishments that the highway & its branching roads, streets, & lanes connect. We use street addresses to identify establishments on a road and IP addresses to identify a node on the Internet. Every website, from Amazon to an assignment help service, every server, computer, & smartphone has its IP address, which acts as a unique identifier and distinguishes it on the World Wide Web.
There are 5.3 billion active Internet users, and according to Cisco, a whopping 29.3 billion devices are connected to the Internet. Both numbers are increasing, and every existing & newly connected device needs an IP address. Assignment, management, and coordination of such huge quantities of IP addresses are only possible with effective technologies & tactics.
The Dynamic Host Client Protocol (DHCP) is an effective IP addressing protocol that eases the challenging scope of IP addressing. It is a standardized client-server network protocol, just like Transfer Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol and creates dynamic IP addresses & essential network configuration information for any connected device.
- Static IP addresses stay the same and given that individual users connect to the Internet through various networking systems, assigning a static address is highly inconvenient and inefficient.
- With dynamic addressing, the IP addresses of new devices, as well as those that are moving across subnets, will be configured manually. At the same time, addresses no longer used must be manually reclaimed.
DHCP circumvents the inefficiency and impracticality by assigning addresses dynamically. Let’s find out how it works.
How Does DHCP Work?
- The DHCP allows network administrators to dynamically assign IP addresses, bypassing the need to set one manually. Specific DHCP servers temporarily assign dynamic IP addresses to DHCP clients. Alongside IP addresses, the servers also provide hosts/nodes/users/clients with pertinent TCP/IP configuration.
- DHCP clients, on activation, broadcast a DHCPDiscover message on a network to locate a DHCP server.
The source IP address is 0.0.0.0 as it has yet to be assigned one. The destination address is 255.255.255.255, as it is broadcasting to the entire network and does not know the exact location of the DHCP server.
- If any DHCP server is capable of responding, it responds with a DHCPOffer, which comprises an offered dynamic IP address, associated subnet mask, etc.
The source address is the DHCP server address, while the destination is 255.255.255.255, as the server does not know the requesting client’s address and is broadcasting to the entire network.
- When the requesting DHCP client receives the server’s offer, it responds with a DHCPRequest, indicating that it accepts the offer.
The source address is yet again 0.0.0.0, and the destination address 255.255.255.255, as the client is still yet to be assigned an IP address, but its acceptance of a particular DHCP offer needs to be broadcasted so that other DHCP servers stop sending requests.
- Once the server receives the client’s response, it sends a DHCPAck message to acknowledge the client’s response and acceptance, along with the dynamic address, subnet mask, router or default gateway address, DNS information, address lease period, & other essential configuration information.
The source is the DHCP server address, and the acknowledgement & configuration information is broadcasted to the subnet.
- DHCP servers generally assign dynamic addresses for eight days. After that, the client requests a lease renewal.
- Besides IP address and subnet mask information, DHCP servers also provide clients with information about several other protocol parameters, such as the default gateway address, domain name & DNS server address, time server address, etc.
- DHCP relay agents also relay messages from clients to servers when they are not on the same IP subnet. A single DHCP server can thus serve numerous, vast subnets through multiple DHCP relay agents.
- DHCP servers store vital configuration information in their databases. This includes:
- The TCP/IP configuration of all clients in a particular network;
- A pool of valid IP addresses, as well as a list of excluded addresses
- IP addresses that have been reserved for particular DHCP clients
- Lease duration or the length of time for which IP addresses are allocated
DHCP and dynamic addressing brings immense benefits to the plate.
- Flexible IP address assignment & configuration: it minimizes configuration errors, address conflicts, and other drawbacks of manual IP address configuration.
- More efficient network administration: Centralized TCP/IP assignment, the automated assignment from a central location, automated assignment of multiple TCP/IP configuration information, effective handling of address changes, reallocation, updating, etc., easy management of addressing of large sub-networks through DHCP relay agents.
Dynamic addressing is the standard today, and all network engineers must be capable of handling DHCP client-server configuration. DHCP is a central aspect of a network engineer’s training regimen. There’s immense demand for DHCP engineers across enterprises and organizations. They essay crucial roles and responsibilities, the most significant of which are mentioned below.
Roles and Responsibilities of DHCP Engineers
Dynamic Host Control Protocol engineers look at a business’s ever-increasing and fluctuating requirements. They must be skilled and experienced network professionals capable of studying business needs, developing technical structure designs, and implementing plans per business objectives.
Key roles and responsibilities of a DHCP network engineer include:
- Integrating DHCP systems into an existing network infrastructure
- Managing, supporting, maintaining, upgrading, and overhauling existing DHCP systems
- Monitoring and reporting information from DHCP systems
- Procuring necessary equipment and provisioning necessary talent
- Investigating faults and carrying out high-level troubleshooting
- Maintaining manual log sheets
- Develop and maintain policies, regulations, & procedures for both routine & maintenance tasks
- Overlooking the security, reliability and consistency of networking systems
- Ensuring networks work under optimal conditions.
Network engineers trained in DHCP need a degree in IT, telecommunication, computer applications, hardware & networking, and related fields in computer science. They must possess a solid understanding of network configurations, LAN/WAN/MAN, TCP/IP, data communications, Domain Naming Systems, network topographies, etc.
If you are looking forward to a career in network engineering, there are many certifications out there to start with. The Top 3 network engineer certifications for both students & professionals are:
- Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) certification—the most popular and entry-level staple certification
- CompTIA Network+ –A vendor-neutral certification that builds an understanding of networking basics for entry-level IT jobs
- Juniper Networks Certified Associate – An associated level certification for engineers working with Juniper technologies
Sharp skills, solid theoretical knowledge, substantial practical knowledge, and comprehensive ideas are necessary to become an ace DHCP network engineer. Work hard, solve problems & assignments, and if need be, look for professional essay & assignment help services for aid.
All the best!